top of page

Top 10 Practices of Successful Dispensaries

Updated: May 4

Not all dispensaries are created equal. While some are content to ride the wave of cannabis legalization, the truly successful ones dive deeper, mastering an array of business activities that set them apart from the rest. These elite establishments don't just sell cannabis; they craft an unparalleled experience, backed by operational excellence, and driven by a clear vision.

While the range of business activities is largely consistent across dispensaries, it's the nuance in execution that distinguishes the top-tier establishments.

While the range of business activities is largely consistent across dispensaries, it's the nuance in execution that distinguishes the top-tier establishments. Every dispensary, for instance, will engage in inventory management, customer service, and marketing. However, the most successful ones approach these tasks not as mere checkboxes to tick off but as opportunities to innovate and elevate. They integrate best practices, continuously refine their strategies, and are never complacent. It's this proactive and detail-oriented approach to universally shared business activities that often makes the difference between an average dispensary and an industry leader.

In this article, we'll delve into the top 10 business activities that these standout dispensaries excel at, offering a blueprint for those aspiring to reach similar heights in the industry.

Table of Contents

1. Inventory Tracking

A successful cannabis dispensary is not merely defined by the quality of products it sells or the ambiance it offers but is deeply rooted in the robustness and accuracy of its inventory tracking system. This might seem like a behind-the-scenes detail to an average consumer, but to dispensary owners and state regulators, top-tier inventory tracking is fundamental.

One of the primary reasons for this emphasis on inventory tracking is the stringent regulatory environment that governs the cannabis industry in many states. The "seed to sale" tracking requirement is a testament to this rigor. Under this system, every single product – right from its origin as a seedling to its final sale to a consumer – needs to be meticulously accounted for. This information isn't merely for internal record-keeping; it has to be reported in real-time to state authorities via third-party APIs that integrate with the dispensary's point of sale system.

Now, one might wonder, why such a rigorous process? The answer lies in the regulatory intent to prevent illicit activities in the cannabis industry. Inaccurate inventory numbers raise red flags for state regulators. Discrepancies or inconsistencies in inventory can be perceived as signs of potential diversion to the black market, unauthorized sales, or other illicit activities. For this reason, a failure in maintaining accurate inventory numbers ranks as one of the top reasons for dispensaries to face hefty fines or more intensive scrutiny by regulators.

But what does top-tier inventory tracking encompass? It's not just about logging sales. Effective tracking starts with physical inventory management – this means ensuring organized stocking, regular counting, and cycling through products to prevent old stock from lingering too long. Every product that enters or leaves the dispensary, whether it's being sold, returned, or disposed of as waste, needs to be precisely accounted for.

Furthermore, the tracking system captures details about the supply chain. Purchase orders, vendor details, and even information about the identity of agents who interact with product along the supply chain are meticulously recorded. Such comprehensive data not only ensures compliance with state regulations but also provides invaluable insights for business operations, helping dispensaries streamline their processes, manage relationships with vendors, and optimize their stock based on sales trends.

Businesses with effective inventory tracking have a 5-10% improvement in stock turnover rates, leading to fresher stock and better cash flow.

The most successful dispensaries excel at inventory tracking. by taking a meticulous and comprehensive approach that ensures compliance with state regulations, prevents potential legal repercussions, and ultimately, builds trust with consumers who can be confident they're purchasing from a legitimate, responsible establishment.

2. Compliance

While seed to sale tracking is a cornerstone of regulatory compliance, the reality is that the tapestry of rules and regulations governing dispensaries is vastly intricate, covering virtually every facet of their operations.

The realm of compliance stretches far beyond product tracking. To truly understand the breadth and depth of what dispensaries must navigate, consider that virtually every activity undertaken has a regulation attached to it.

For instance, security measures are paramount. Most states have exacting standards regarding surveillance. It's not just about having cameras; it's about where those cameras are placed, ensuring they capture specific areas within the dispensary. Furthermore, regulations dictate the length of time video footage must be retained, often necessitating significant digital storage solutions. The uptime of these cameras — meaning they should be operational without interruptions — is crucial, and any maintenance or downtime can be subject to reporting requirements.

Then there's the matter of access control. Dispensaries aren't just open spaces where employees wander freely. There are specific areas, particularly where products or cash are stored, that have limited access. Tracking who enters and exits these zones is crucial. Moreover, every visitor to the dispensary, from vendors to technicians, needs to be logged.

The daily operations of the dispensary also fall under the purview of compliance. Activities that might seem mundane in other businesses, such as cleaning, opening, and closing procedures, require stringent record-keeping in this context. Similarly, every individual involved in specific tasks, be it cash handling, receiving deliveries, or managing financial transactions, must be meticulously documented.

Incidents, irrespective of their magnitude, are another critical area. Whether it's a minor mishap or a significant security breach, dispensaries are often mandated to maintain a record and, in some cases, report them to regulatory authorities.

One of the most personal touches of compliance revolves around the employees themselves. Every individual working in a dispensary needs to possess an agent registration card. This isn't just an ID; it's a testament to the individual having undergone a state-mandated background check and having provided necessary personal information. Dispensaries bear the responsibility not only to ensure their staff have these cards but that they are always on hand when employees are on-site. It's also the dispensary's duty to ensure these cards are renewed and kept up-to-date.

Compliance efficacy also impact the customer relationship witha dispensary. A survey by Feefo showed that 81% of consumers believe businesses operating with full compliance are more trustworthy than their non-compliant counterparts. In the most successful dispensaries, the end consumer sees a streamlined purchasing process and quality products while behind the scenes, there's an intricate dance of adherence to a vast and ever-evolving set of rules and regulations.

Lastly, given that many dispensaries have a goal of either being acquired, taking their company public, or taking on investors - compliant measures are paramount. EY's Global Integrity Report states that 85% of investors would likely never consider investing in a company with a history of compliance breaches, even if the potential ROI was high. While skirting on compliance measures may seem like no big deal, or like. short term solution to speeding up processes, successful dispensaries know that the long term impact is too costly of a risk for their goals.

EY's Global Integrity Report states that 85% of investors would likely never consider investing in a company with a history of compliance breaches, even if the potential ROI was high.

3. Product Procurement

Dispensaries, in the modern cannabis market, are much more than just retail outlets that "sell weed." Behind the scenes of every successful dispensary lies a web of carefully nurtured relationships, strategic decision-making, and a commitment to ensuring that only the highest-quality products make it to their shelves. While it might seem to an outsider that dispensaries simply stock and sell cannabis products, the reality is that for the best dispensaries the business entails rigorous vetting processes, keen market insights, and continuous adaptation to meet customer needs and preferences.

A cornerstone of this effort is the relationship dispensaries cultivate with growers and product manufacturers. Establishing and maintaining a strong bond with the best cultivators and producers is not just about getting a good deal or having a steady supply; it's about ensuring accessibility to the best products the market has to offer. A successful dispensary recognizes the value of these relationships, given that the quality of the product they retail directly reflects their brand's integrity and reputation.

The procurement specialists or teams play a pivotal role in this intricate process. They are not simply purchasing agents but rather the gatekeepers of quality and the curators of the dispensary's product lineup. Their tasks go far beyond just buying. Sampling products is an essential part of their job, allowing them to firsthand judge the efficacy, flavor profiles, and overall quality. They meticulously review testing results, ensuring that products are consistent in their quality, free from contaminants, and true to their potency claims.

Moreover, they often perform on-site visits to growers and manufacturers, assessing the cleanliness, ethical practices, and quality assurance measures in place at these facilities. Such visits not only provide a lens into the production process but also foster mutual trust and understanding between the dispensary and its suppliers. Purchasing products from a cultivator or producer who is clearly bound for a product quality issue is not in the best interest of a dispensary, no matter how low the company is willing to go on their wholesale pricing.

Lastly, a forward-thinking dispensary is always attuned to its customers' feedback. After all, they are the ultimate judges of product quality and effectiveness. By listening to their clientele, dispensaries can adjust their product offerings, ensuring they consistently meet or exceed consumer expectations.

For the most successful dispensaries, the end goal is not just to sell products but to provide an unparalleled experience anchored in trust, quality, and customer satisfaction. Product procurement is a massive piece of that equation.

4. Staff Training

Having a knowledgeable staff is undoubtedly essential. Customers expect dispensary employees to be well-versed in the myriad strains, consumption methods, and therapeutic benefits that cannabis offers. However, limiting staff training to just the technical facets of cannabis is a short-sighted approach that overlooks the holistic nature of the customer experience.

A dispensary aiming for true excellence recognizes that while product knowledge is foundational, it's only one piece of the puzzle. Here's why broadening the scope of staff training to encompass customer service, rapport building, sales techniques, and providing gentle guidance is vital:

The experience a customer has within the dispensary walls often determines whether they'll become a one-time shopper or a loyal patron. Trained staff can address concerns, handle issues with empathy, and ensure every visitor leaves with a positive impression, regardless of the size of their purchase.

Purchasing cannabis, especially for newcomers, can be an intimidating experience. By training staff to build rapport through active listening and genuine engagement, customers feel seen, heard, and valued. This interpersonal connection fosters trust, making customers more likely to seek advice and return for future visits.

A team well-trained in sales knows how to gently upsell, cross-sell, and highlight promotions without coming off as pushy. They understand how to read customer cues, making personalized recommendations that suit individual needs. This not only enhances the customer experience but also positively impacts the bottom line. Well-trained sales teams understand customer needs better, leading to satisfied customers. As per Bain & Company, a 5% increase in customer retention can increase profits by 25-95%.

Well-trained sales teams understand customer needs better, leading to satisfied customers. As per Bain & Company, a 5% increase in customer retention can increase profits by 25-95%.

Many customers, especially those new to the world of cannabis, enter dispensaries with a plethora of questions and uncertainties. A staff member adept at providing gentle guidance can lead these customers through their journey, turning uncertainty into an educational and empowering experience.

In the rapidly evolving cannabis industry, staying ahead of the curve requires more than just high-quality products and knowledgeable staff. Today's successful dispensaries understand the importance of leveraging technology to enhance their operations, ensuring not only compliance but also delivering a superior customer experience.

5. Leverage Technology

Advanced Point-of-Sale (POS) Systems

Gone are the days of manual cash registers and handwritten receipts. Modern POS systems, designed specifically for dispensaries, integrate seamlessly with inventory, accounting, and compliance modules. These systems facilitate faster checkouts, reduce human error, and provide real-time data on sales trends, all while ensuring each transaction adheres to state regulations.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Tools

Building lasting relationships with customers is at the heart of any successful business venture. CRM tools are the backbone of this effort in the digital age and studies have shown that using CRM can enhance sales productivity by up to 34%, as reported by Salesforce.. They allow dispensaries to capture customer details, purchase histories, and preferences. According to HubSpot, 75% of sales managers say that using a CRM helps to drive and increase sales, but it also aids in refining marketing strategies based on actionable insights. By analyzing this data, dispensaries can craft personalized marketing campaigns, offer targeted promotions, and ensure that loyal customers feel valued.

Studies have shown that using CRM can enhance sales productivity by up to 34%, as reported by Salesforce.

Inventory Tracking Solutions

Managing inventory in a dispensary is no small feat, given the myriad products and ever-changing stock levels. Advanced inventory solutions not only help in tracking product movement but also provide alerts when stock levels are low. More importantly, they ensure that the inventory aligns with state-mandated seed-to-sale tracking systems, safeguarding the dispensary from potential compliance violations.

Gaining Insights and Tailoring Strategies

One of the most significant advantages of technology is the access it provides to actionable data. By analyzing customer purchase patterns, feedback, and preferences, dispensaries can refine their product offerings. They can identify which products are best-sellers, which ones may need more promotional efforts, and even spot emerging trends in consumption. This invaluable insight allows for a more tailored and effective marketing strategy, ensuring that the dispensary remains a step ahead of the competition.

6. Customer Education

The journey of cannabis from an illicit substance to a product available at legal dispensaries is emblematic of the broader societal transformation around its acceptance. However, with this newfound accessibility comes the challenge of enlightenment. While the allure of cannabis attracts a myriad of consumers, the actual understanding of the product remains enigmatic for many, including those who partake in its consumption.

The recent surge in cannabis's popularity can be attributed to its evolving legal status and the dispelling of long-held stigmas. An upshot of this shift is the influx of new consumers, eager to explore the world of cannabis but often lacking the foundational knowledge about its myriad strains, benefits, potential side effects, consumption methods, and more. This knowledge gap is not confined to just consumers; even those employed within the industry may begin their careers with limited expertise about the product.

Dispensaries, standing at the frontline of the cannabis retail experience, inherently assume the role of educators. Their duty extends beyond the mere transaction of selling; they are the bridges that connect curious or even apprehensive customers to the multifaceted world of cannabis. This mission necessitates a two-pronged approach to education.

Firstly, there's the internal education of the staff. Employees, especially those in customer-facing roles like budtenders, need to be thoroughly versed in the nuances of cannabis. This spans from a broad understanding of the plant's history, genetics, and effects to detailed knowledge about specific product types, brands, and even the science behind various strains and compounds like THC and CBD. However, this internal education isn't a one-time process; with the cannabis industry's continual evolution, ongoing training becomes vital.

Then, there's the external facet of education targeting the customers. Dispensaries must craft an environment where curiosity is encouraged, questions are welcomed, and knowledge is shared without overwhelming the customer. The challenge lies in striking the right balance – ensuring that customers are informed enough to make safe and suitable choices, but not so inundated with information that they feel overwhelmed or intimidated.

This delicate dance of education, however, isn't universally mastered. With the rapid expansion of the cannabis industry, some dispensaries might prioritize quick sales over comprehensive education. The time and resources required to constantly educate staff can be daunting. Yet, the benefits of investing in education are palpable. Knowledgeable staff not only instill confidence in consumers but also foster meaningful interactions, leading to a sense of trust. This trust, in turn, cultivates loyalty – a crucial ingredient for any business's success in a competitive market.

As the proverbial torchbearers, dispensaries have a profound responsibility to enlighten and guide. The true art of education in the cannabis sector lies not just in the dissemination of facts but in nurturing an environment where learning converges seamlessly with a comforting and enjoyable customer experience. Those who master this art stand to reap not just immediate sales but the enduring loyalty of an informed and satisfied clientele.

7. Embrace Effective Marketing Strategies

Dispensaries often find themselves navigating the intricate maze of advertising regulations. While many traditional avenues of promotion might be restricted, the realm of digital marketing beckons with opportunities that are as vast as they are effective. Here's a deep dive into crafting a formidable digital presence for your dispensary, ensuring you not only remain visible but become the preferred choice for your clientele.

Social Media and Content Marketing

The power of platforms like Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook is undeniable. These are spaces where businesses can interact with their audiences in real-time, fostering community and camaraderie. Regular posts that showcase your products, interspersed with educational content, behind-the-scenes looks, and interactive sessions, can turn casual followers into brand advocates.

In tandem with your social media strategy, consider launching a dedicated blog. Content marketing isn't just about selling a product; it's about telling a story. Articles that delve into the history of cannabis, its benefits, user testimonials, and the latest industry trends can position your brand as an authoritative voice in the space.

Crafting Your Brand's Narrative

Every brand has a story, a unique journey that sets it apart. What's yours? Your brand's narrative should seamlessly highlight its core values, its commitment to quality, and its involvement in the community. When customers resonate with your story, they don’t just buy a product; they buy into a philosophy, ensuring deeper loyalty and trust.

The Power of Email Campaigns

Email remains one of the most effective tools in the digital marketing arsenal. Regular newsletters can keep your clientele updated on new arrivals, special promotions, and industry news. Beyond mere updates, use this platform to educate your audience about the nuances of cannabis, weaving in testimonials and user stories for a more personalized touch.

Elevate Through Collaboration

Consider joining hands with like-minded brands or influencers who resonate with your brand's ethos. Collaborative events, co-branded products, or influencer reviews can significantly widen your reach, introducing your brand to audiences that might have remained untapped otherwise.

The Digital Imperative

The cannabis industry, with its unique set of challenges, demands an innovative approach to marketing. By establishing a robust digital presence and consistently engaging with your audience, you ensure that your brand remains top-of-mind, drawing in not just footfalls but establishing a loyal customer base that swears by your brand.

Remember, in the age of digital connectivity, it's not just about being seen, but about being remembered. And with the right strategy in place, your dispensary can achieve just that.

8. Maintain Consistency of Products and Service

Consistency, in any industry, forms the cornerstone upon which customer trust is built. Especially in the realm of cannabis dispensaries, where the landscape is ever-evolving and the clientele often seeks guidance, the importance of uniformity in experience is paramount. When a consumer steps into a dispensary, be it their initial visit or a return trip, their expectation is grounded in the belief that they will receive the same superior service every time. However, delivering this consistent experience can be riddled with challenges.

One major hurdle that many dispensaries face lies in the realm of inventory management. Cannabis, being an agricultural product, is subject to fluctuations in supply based on factors ranging from cultivation conditions to processing capacities. Sometimes, a particular strain or product that was available one week might be absent the next due to unforeseen supply chain disruptions from cultivators and processors. This inconsistency can disappoint loyal customers who come in expecting their preferred product. Moreover, the lack of robust data analytics and proactive inventory management can exacerbate the issue. Without proper data usage, dispensaries may fail to recognize the diminishing stock of popular products in time to reorder, leading to avoidable stockouts.

Another significant challenge is the relatively high employee turnover rate experienced by many dispensaries. The cannabis industry, being relatively new and rapidly expanding, often grapples with issues like inconsistent training protocols and varied levels of employee expertise. When a dispensary witnesses frequent changes in its frontline staff, it inherently leads to variability in customer interactions. One day, a customer might be assisted by a veteran budtender with deep knowledge about cannabis strains and their effects. On their next visit, they might encounter a novice still familiarizing themselves with the product offerings. This inconsistency can dent the customer's confidence and trust in the establishment.

To combat these challenges and ensure a consistent, high-quality experience, dispensaries need to invest heavily in two key areas: inventory management and employee training. Advanced inventory management systems, which leverage real-time data analytics, can alert dispensaries about dwindling stocks, allowing them to reorder products well before they run out. Simultaneously, a comprehensive and continuous training regime for employees can ensure that, irrespective of turnover, every staff member is equipped to assist customers effectively.

Consistency, while vital, shouldn't just be about maintaining a status quo. By actively seeking feedback, reviewing protocols, and being receptive to change, dispensaries can ensure that they're not only delivering a uniform experience but are also consistently elevating their service standards. In the end, consistency isn't just about trust; it's about building an unwavering reputation. A dispensary that offers a consistent and positive experience doesn't just earn repeat business; it transforms casual visitors into brand ambassadors, leading to word-of-mouth referrals, which are often the most effective and genuine form of advertisement.

9. Financial Management

To navigate the challenges of the industry and emerge victorious, successful cannabis dispensaries are adopting a dual approach: strategic financial management and impeccable accounting practices.

Investing Where It Counts

Financial efficiency isn't just about tightening the purse strings but discerning where to loosen them. The most thriving dispensaries understand the importance of channeling their funds into areas that directly enhance their operations and customer experience such as training, quality products, and value-adding technologies. There are numerous studies and statistics across different industries that highlight the benefits of "investing where it counts."

A report by McKinsey found that companies that prioritize the quality of their products and services can increase customer satisfaction by up to 20%, and lift revenue by up to 15% while lowering the cost of serving customers by as much as 20%.

Strategizing Against Wasteful Spending

While making intelligent investments is one side of the coin, the other side involves curbing unnecessary expenses. Several strategies play a pivotal role here:

Regular Financial Audits

Periodic deep dives into the financial activities of the dispensary can shine a light on hidden inefficiencies and superfluous costs. By addressing these, dispensaries can optimize their resource usage.

Vendor Negotiations

In the world of business, relationships matter. By cultivating strong bonds with suppliers, dispensaries can tap into benefits like discounts on bulk purchases and favorable payment terms. Over time, these savings can amount to a significant sum.

Optimal Stock Management

Nothing erodes profits like excessive inventory wastage. By leveraging accurate sales data, dispensaries can master the art of inventory management, ensuring they stock what's needed and sell what's stocked.


The intricate landscape of the cannabis industry, with its ever-evolving regulations, demands an unyielding emphasis on accounting. Often operating behind the scenes, accounting practices serve as the bedrock upon which successful dispensaries stand.

Transparency through Record Keeping In the realm of cannabis, the importance of clear and meticulous record-keeping cannot be overstated. Such precision not only ensures adherence to the industry's stringent regulations but also shines a light on business performance. With insights gleaned from these records, dispensaries can make decisions that are both informed and strategic.

Navigating the Tax Maze The cannabis industry is uniquely positioned when it comes to taxation, facing a myriad of local and federal implications. Staying abreast of these tax laws is paramount. Through diligent accounting, dispensaries can ensure they're meeting their financial obligations accurately, safeguarding against potential pitfalls of over or underpayment.

The Power of Financial Reporting A clear understanding of one's financial health is vital for any business, and dispensaries are no exception. Regular financial reports, be it profit and loss statements, balance sheets, or cash flow overviews, offer a comprehensive view of the dispensary's fiscal position. Such clarity allows businesses to take timely and proactive measures, ensuring continued growth and stability.

10. Political Engagement

Successful dispensaries recognize the paramount importance of political activity, understanding that the regulatory environment can greatly impact their operations. These forward-thinking enterprises don't simply react to legislative changes; they actively participate in the political dialogue. Whether it's ensuring a presence at local regulatory hearings to voice their perspectives or staying updated on impending regulatory shifts, they're always a step ahead.

This vigilance often entails retaining consultants, legal counsel, or designated employees whose sole responsibility is to monitor and respond to the political pulse. Moreover, when the need arises to shape policy decisions more proactively, these dispensaries don't hesitate to engage in lobbying or direct government relations, ensuring that their interests, and often those of their consumers, are adequately represented and safeguarded in the corridors of power.


Successful dispensaries distinguish themselves not just by the products they offer, but by how they operate at every level. From meticulously tracking inventory to ensuring unwavering compliance with regulations, they prioritize the pillars of a robust business model. Investing in staff training, embracing cutting-edge technology, and fostering informed customers are not just ideals, but daily practices. Meanwhile, smart marketing efforts combined with consistent product quality create a loyal customer base, all while prudent financial management ensures sustainability. Lastly, by engaging politically, these leading dispensaries help shape a more conducive and favorable industry landscape. If there's a blueprint to success in the dispensary business, it's found in a blend of these tenets, and the top players master them all.

For assistance in setting up a brand new dispensary for success or for up leveling your current dispensary operations, contact us at Cann Strategy.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

For Dispensary Owners and Investors

1. Why is inventory tracking so crucial in a dispensary? Inventory tracking is fundamental in dispensaries due to the strict regulatory environment, which requires meticulous real-time record-keeping to prevent illicit activities. Effective inventory management leads to improved stock turnover rates and better cash flow.

2. What does compliance entail for a cannabis dispensary? Compliance covers product tracking, security measures, access control, daily operational record-keeping, incident documentation, and ensuring all staff hold valid agent registration cards. Compliance builds trust with customers and is critical for attracting potential investors.

3. How does product procurement impact a dispensary's success? Product procurement is essential for securing high-quality products and building relationships with growers and manufacturers. It ensures product consistency, aligns with customer preferences, and reflects the brand's integrity.

4. What should staff training include beyond cannabis knowledge? Staff training should encompass customer service, rapport building, sales techniques, and providing guidance to customers. Well-trained staff can enhance customer retention significantly.

5. How can technology be leveraged in a dispensary? Technology can be utilized through advanced POS systems for seamless transactions and compliance, CRM tools for relationship building, inventory solutions for efficient stock management, and data analytics for tailoring business strategies.

6. Why is customer education important in a dispensary? Customer education is crucial as it empowers consumers to make informed choices about products that suit their needs. Educated customers are more likely to trust and return to the dispensary, fostering loyalty.

7. What effective marketing strategies can dispensaries use within regulatory constraints? Dispensaries can engage in social media marketing, content creation like blogging, email campaigns, collaboration with influencers or brands, and crafting compelling brand narratives to connect with customers digitally.

8. How does maintaining consistency of products and service benefit a dispensary? Consistency builds trust with customers who expect the same quality of service and products with every visit. It also turns customers into brand ambassadors through positive word-of-mouth referrals.

9. What financial management practices are essential for dispensaries? Strategic investments in operations, regular financial audits to eliminate wasteful spending, vendor negotiations for better deals, optimal stock management, precise accounting practices for regulatory adherence, and accurate tax handling are vital financial practices.

10. Why should dispensaries engage politically? Political engagement allows dispensaries to influence policy decisions that affect the industry directly. Staying active in political dialogues ensures that the interests of the business and consumers are represented at legislative levels.

For comprehensive assistance in setting up or enhancing your dispensary operations to achieve industry-leading success, reach out to us at Cann Strategy.

154 views0 comments


bottom of page